Green Synthetic Route For The Size Controlled Synthesis Of Biocompatible gold Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract Of Garlic (Allium Sativum)
Lori Rastogi and J. Arunachalam
Volume 4, Issue 7, Page 548-555 | DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.11456
Keywords: Gold nanoparticles; green synthesis; size controlled synthesis; garlic extract; biocompatibility.
A green synthetic approach for the highly stable, size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles is being described. The study explores the use of aqueous extract of garlic cloves as reducing/stabilizing agent for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The synthesis is achieved by heating the mixture of aqueous garlic extract and HAuCl4 at 95ºC in water bath at pH-10 for 2 hrs. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of pink color and an absorption maximum at 530 nm. Further, extract concentration and type of alkali (NH4OH/NaOH) has been varied to tune the size of nanoparticles. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles was found to decrease (56.5 ± 13.6 to 24.7 ± 8.2) with increasing extract concentration (0.5%-1.0%) in the presence of NH4OH. In the presence of NaOH, the synthesis time was reduced to 20 min, with an average particle size of 5.5 ± 2.7. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that non-aggregated gold nanoparticles of various sizes could be synthesized by simple change in reaction conditions. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be pure face centered cubic crystals as suggested by selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction patterns. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed possible role of S-allyl-cysteine as the major component responsible for reduction of Au3+ to Au0 and protein/amino acids as stabilizing agents. The gold nanoparticles were found to have remarkable in vitro stability: showed no sign of aggregation at room temperature storage for a long time (more than 6 months), could resist aggregation in aqueous media with high concentrations of NaCl, in various buffers including: cysteine, histidine, bovine serum albumin and at host of pH ranges. Further, cytotoxicity evaluations on S. cerevisiae have shown non-toxic nature of the synthesized gold nanoparticles up to 100 µM of concentration as assessed by well diffusion and inhibition of colony forming efficiency assay. Ease in size control, high stability and biocompatible nature of garlic extract reduced, stabilized gold nanoparticles suggests that they could be potential candidates for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2013 VBRI press.